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tv   Legacy of Dispute  Al Jazeera  January 30, 2018 4:00am-5:00am +03

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rins influence the course of history was the cuban revolution communist no way feel castro is a feudal east the not a communist that custer wanted his country che wanted international revolution became a point when the relationship came to an end the icons of revolution who changed the course of latin american politics. and fidel castro face to face at this time on al-jazeera. hello again everyone from going to here in doha the top stories on al-jazeera syrian warplanes have killed at least twenty people during an offensive on the rebel held province of it lib want to say the jets targeted a market and then a hospital full of people wounded in the earlier strike it comes as russia launches
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a diplomatic push to end the war hosting a new round of talks and so cheap the u.s. is there but the main syrian opposition group says that it will boycott the negotiations for a challenge reports now from sochi. where the news earlier on monday the another group of opposition figures was going to be staying away from sochi really exposes i think the short comings of this congress russia has tried to make this as inclusive as possible inviting people and groups from across the syrian cultural religious and political spectrum so the robot is here there are these there are sunnis and sheers allo whites and various different political platforms including the moscow platform the rest on a platform but there are a few notable exceptions now those are the s.n.c. the syrian that negotiation committee which has said that it will stay away from sochi believing that this is undermining the geneva process the kurdish groups such
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as the y. p.g. then not here either they are considered persona non grata by turkey and of essential being shut out or don't think they want to come anyway because of what's going on in africa and so this all basically steers the saatchi towards the moscow and damascus perspective on the syrian conflict the upshot of this congress is likely to be the endorsement of of a new what they're calling a constitutional committee made up supposedly all of the syrian government on one side and opposition representatives on the other but if the main groups of the opposition are not here. then this allows damascus to essentially say that the opposition groups boycotting sochi boycotting this process are saboteur over peace the big question of course is where the un stands on the of this and whether
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stefan de mistura will approve of these measures and not allow this to filter into the geneva process the russians believe that he is on board rafters wait to see whether the u.s. that suggest that is confirmed or not the deputy director of the f.b.i. has resigned weeks before his official retirement date the u.s. president has repeatedly criticized andrew mccabe for political bias donald trump is accused mccabe of favoring his rival hillary clinton during the twenty sixteen presidential race mccabe's resignation comes a week after a u.s. media reported that the president wanted him gone but the white house denies any involvement in a long peace talks between the government and rebels in colombia have been called off after a series of bombings over the weekend president juan manuel santos has blamed marxist rebels for the attacks on police stations in three cities ireland's government has agreed to hold a referendum in may on liberalizing abortion laws the majority catholic country has
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some of the tightest restrictions on abortion in europe it's currently banned in all cases except where there is a specific threat to the life of the mother due to pregnancy volkswagen has come under fire for part funding tests in which monkeys and humans were exposed to toxic fumes a report says the german car maker ordered the studies in twenty fourteen along with diamond and b.m.w. germany's government has called the tests unjustifiable. and more than one hundred migrants have been rescued off the coast of libya after they became stranded trying to cross the mediterranean in dangerous conditions the country's coast guard said the group which included women and children were brought to a naval base in tripoli for medical treatment the u.s. military is changing its guidelines for the use of wireless gadgets following revelations that fitness tracking apps can disclose sensitive military positions a global heat map of groups use routes rather used by runners and cyclists posted
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online by fitness tracking companies strother reveals the outlines of u.s. bases in war zones around the world but those they had ties with more news for you here on out is here after the struggle over the nile. the novel. the world's longest river. a seven thousand kilometers a lifeline for almost four hundred million people.
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flowing north the nile runs through ten countries from the highlands in the heart of africa to the shores of the mediterranean sea. a source of sustenance but also one of tension even the potential conflict. these tensions between countries along the river nile have their roots in the nineteenth century. colonial decisions of the past. are a point of bitter dispute today. and new political realities on the ground are increasing the sense of uncertainty over who owns the river nile.
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in september two thousand and five a team of explorers set off on a unique journey up the nile river. like you say at the mouth of the not. the longest river journey in the world. led by new zealand adventurer a chemical a team aimed at being the first expedition to travel up the nile to its furthest source. the first stage of the trek through egypt and. proved a breeze. but then the explorers encountered the sued the world's largest swamp.
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and found into this massive swampy area at one thousand kilometers long and three hundred kilometers wide is now hell. he just did live and water it's incredible. the sued means obstacles in arabic and it has proved just that a labyrinth of waterways that has hindered expeditions. maclean's team managed to navigate their way out to the swamp. off to ninety days of travel overcoming tremendous obstacles they eventually arrived in rwanda. at a tiny spring which they determined to be the southernmost source of the nile. today
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but clay is settled in uganda where he runs a whitewater rafting business in the city of jinja here on the nile when you've got a lot. thank you it's good advice. that i'm. just a few kilometers away from the clays business stands this list a monument to a past mile adventurer john manning speak. speak was a british explorer who arrived here almost one hundred fifty years earlier eighteen sixty two he came in search of the answer to an age old question where is the source of the nile.
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the royal geographical society in london was established in eighteen thirty. it houses the maps navigation tools and personal belongings of famous explorers from the nineteenth century. men who were in the grip of a romantic obsession to discover the source of the nile. for europeans the exploration of the mile is probably the biggest goal drives their enterprise in one thousand century because it's seen as the largest the most important river and also because there is this long heritage or history associated with it. rather than trying to cross the sued area in southern sudan
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explorers in the mid one thousand nine hundred. another passage via the island of zanzibar. during the nineteenth century. zanzibar it was an arab kingdom controlling the trade route from india into africa's interior. and these arab traders facilitate european exploration it's the year of this the arab traders for example who began first to report that there are great lakes or a great like in the interior of east africa. based on this information the royal geographical society sponsored expeditions into the heart of africa. in eight hundred fifty seven using zanzibar as
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a starting point john hanning speak cross to east africa and ventured into the hinterland where he found a huge lake he believed to be the source of the nile. and three years later on a new expedition he travelled around this lake today known as lake victoria to discover the nile flowing out from its northern side. a roll call of famous explorers ventured into the continents interior to build on speaks discovery. men such as samuel baker david livingston and henry morton stanley helped complete the picture about the true source of the nile. back home they were lauded as heroes with monuments built on of them but others saw them differently it was mistakenly called to discover that you know
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most of the books in the plus they use it speak of discovered in the night as if you was a fussed he might have been through the night when he was a fussy european to say this is of the night well. but the discovered it because he was going so and this is also denied by the other gods in. the royal geographical society helped push the boundaries of exploration and empire . but this age of exploration is seen by many as a precursor of colonize ation. most of that is most of these people were explorers but intelligence services in their own countries made use of their experiences. they were not only british but also belgians and french. they've served the people and the situation in these areas.
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they then pass this information on for colonize ation and as it has. armed with greater information the age of exploration began the scramble for africa. the continent was up for grabs. to divide the spoils european nations convened at the berlin conference in eight hundred eighty four where they sliced up the african continent into spears of influence. britain had formally occupied egypt two years earlier in eight hundred eighty two to control the suez canal the strategic route to india the jewel in the crown of the british empire. in berlin it was decided the nile basin region would fall under british rule. when the british to control you knighted to their
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very soon realized that they had become rudeness of a society that a totally depend upon the nile so they understood from the very beginning that the economic development the political stability to depend upon my control. to assert control upstream the british established what it called the east africa protectorate in one thousand nine hundred five comprising what is today kenya and uganda. the next step was sudan a territory ruled by egypt since eight hundred twenty. with their domination in egypt the british persuaded the egyptians to sign an agreement in january eight hundred ninety nine for joining rule of a sedan. in reality joint rule was a fig leaf for british command. here in the presidential palace in khartoum to this
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day a museum houses portrayed of former governors of sudan. the paintings are testament to a time of british dominion. in our world in fact the british master the art of ruling sudan they completely sidelined the egyptians. the governor general was british the commander of the army was british and so were all the high ranking officials in the administration. controlling the great lakes region source of the white nile the british mix turned their attention to ensuring hedge many over the blue nile rivers of a source originating in the ethiopian highlands.
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in may nineteen zero two the british signed an agreement with emperor men like the second of ethiopia in which he promised not to build any dam that might affect the flow of the blue nile to egypt. feeling they had secured the full length of the nile britain's decision makers in london began to put in place the next phase of their master plan economic gain. from quite early on the british also decided to transform egypt into the cotton farm where the textile industry is and like it here in the. british reliance on egyptian cotton began to increase. to boost the harvest the british set out to revolutionize egypt's irrigation system a system dating back thousands of years. they gave
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a oddity to the vote countries denied countries their old engineer is what the plan is running down from the colonials service and to aid. experienced guys give them a lot of fans not a political freedom so that they really can take the nile in hand. the british came up with the idea for a dam in southern egypt to hold back the nile flood and use its waters for irrigation. construction on the ass when low dam began eighteen one thousand nine. it was officially opened three years later at the time it was the largest stone dam of its kind ever built.
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britain wanted to ensure the full flow with the nile reached egypt to maximize cotton production. no one else upstream was allowed to siphon off any of the river . for have some strict orders were laid down regarding the use of the nile water because the british were concerned about egypt money all island for example they banned sudanese farmers to using it water pumps unless they obtained permission from the egyptian irrigation authority. in. britain discriminated in favor of egypt's claim over the nile. the british expected the egyptians to be thankful but they were to have a rude awakening. in one thousand nine hundred nineteen following the end of the first world war the egyptians revolted against british occupation and demanded
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complete independence. they were led by a fiery nationalist called saad zabulon. with such sentiment on the rise. the british looked for a way to cower the egyptians into submission. the river nile egypt's lifeline was an effective political weapon and the british had in mind a perfect place to use this weapon. the get zero region in sudan between the blue nile and the white nile was an area with the potential to become the largest cotton growing region in the world. that to france to motives or to main strategic and is that they can see it as good or wrong to increase the cup. production in sudan for the benefit of the british taste of history secondly this
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hue if it is not really in control of the know is running through saddam and his who has the power and. the bit it has a power in saddam. british attempts to intimidate the egyptians only further inflamed nationalist sentiment. a crisis point was reached when in november one thousand nine hundred twenty four salinas stack commander in chief of the egyptian army and governor of sudan was assassinated while driving through the streets of cairo. the assassins were arrested and sentenced to death. but the murder of the british official was a turning point london now found its reason to implement the good zero scheme. what they did was that ok you killed the governor general then the will take more work
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from the nile as a punishment so this was the first time in practice that's jim power punished. the dolls can power needed for the vote with. britain's trump card was the center dam completed in one thousand nine hundred twenty five. built on the blue nile in sedan it would help the irrigation of the gezi or area. but it also delivered an ominous signal to the egyptians for the first time in their history a dam built outside of egypt but affect the flow of the nile into their country. nationalists however continued to mobilize popular support against the british occupation. cooler heads in london began to realize that relations with egypt were deteriorating fast. something which could threaten british control over the
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suez canal. as before the river nile became a useful political tool this time for compromise rather than coercion. in maine one hundred twenty nine notes were exchanged between the british high commissioner in egypt george lloyd and the egyptian prime minister mohammad mahmoud pasha. this diplomacy led to a landmark agreement in which britain awarded egypt exclusive control over the full course of the nile waters from egypt's point of in the night to twenty nine agreement also calls. and victory. because here the british said that well the nile is an egyptian. and it has a with a right to stop its upstream if they don't want it. by signing the nine hundred
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twenty nine agreement the british sought to co-opt the egyptians. no such consideration was given to the indigenous peoples upstream who were not consulted. even though the river originated in their lands. by the early one nine hundred thirty s. britain was becoming increasingly concerned with a growing menace closer to home. at the end of world war two one thousand nine hundred forty five britain was no longer the mighty empire that could claim control of a large parts of the world such as the nile basin. after the second world war
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britain came out of the will inject brits economy came out very much a device that it and the us now that came with the world of. the united states stepped forward to assert itself moved boldly on the world stage in places formally controlled by the old then piles. in one nine hundred fifty three u.s. secretary of state john foster dulles became the first time ranking american official to visit cairo. dulles offered financial support for the construction of a massive new dam on the nile in southern egypt but three years later the of was withdrawn. the americans had become suspicious of egyptian president abdul nasser as non-alignment policy. at the same time the withdrawal of the office provided an
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opportunity to undermine british influence john thousand dollars on the american government that understood quite clearly that one way of crushing. the influence of the british imperialists in this area was to make them powerless when it comes to the now question became clear that everybody. that duels of the americans decide it and the british had to just follow up as said prior to. despite the withdrawal of financial support for the construction of the ass one high dam nasa chose to push ahead. in july one thousand nine hundred fifty six nationalize the suez canal company to provide funding for the project. the takeover stun british and french shareholders in the swiss company . the british still ruling parts of east africa had
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a secret plan retaliation. the plan would involve using the enfolds dam in uganda to cut off the flow with the nile upstream in an attempt to force nasa to give up the suez canal. the scheme was never adopted since the ensuing drought would take too long to have its effect on egypt. britain wanted more immediate action so they reverted to a more obvious method boots on the ground. in one thousand nine hundred fifty six britain and france with israeli collusion invaded egypt in a bid to seize back the canal. the americans publicly distance themselves from the aggression. by the states but
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not consulted in any way about any way that these actions nor whether we informed them in it but. it is our hope and intent just matter will be brought before the united nations general assembly there with no veto operating the opinion of the world can be brought to bear in our quest for a just in to this plan minty from. the united nations declared a ceasefire. so as crisis ended with a humiliating withdrawal of the invasion forces from egypt it was to prove a seminal moment in modern history. the sun was setting on the british empire. colonialism was on the decline. in africa nations began to gain their independence among them nile upstream
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countries. the winds of change were blowing creating new states and new demands for a share of the waters of the nile. it was oriol upon which modern day venezuela was a stop. for over a century this lucrative resorts has divided the people less than those with the world's largest reserves. charting the impact of industrialization and the legacies of its prominent leaders we shed light on the troubles afflicting venezuela today. the big picture the battle for venezuela coming soon on. the scene for us
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where on line what is american sign in yemen that peace is possible but not what happens not because the situation is complicated but because no one cares or if you join us on set there are people that are choosing between buying medication and eating base is a dialogue i want to get in one more comment because this is someone who's an activist and just posted a story join the global conversation at this time on al-jazeera. hello again everyone from going to here in doha the top stories on al-jazeera syrian warplanes have killed at least twenty people during an offensive on the rebel held province of it live want to say the jets targeted a market and then a hospital full of people wounded in the earliest strike it comes as russia
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launches a diplomatic push to end the war hosting a new round of talks in sochi the u.n. is there but the main syrian opposition group says that it will boycott the negotiations. the f.b.i. is deputy director has resigned weeks before his official retirement dates the u.s. president has repeatedly criticised andrew mccabe for political bias donald trump is accused mccabe of favoring his rival hillary clinton during the twenty sixteen presidential race the cape's resignation comes a week after u.s. media reported that the president wanted him gone but the white house denies any involvement we've seen numerous sports as all of you have and any specifics i can tell you none of this decision was made by out of the white house any specifics i would refer you to the f.b.i. president wasn't part of this is you making process and we would refer you to the f.b.i. where christopher ray serves as the director which as i said last week and i'll repeat again today the president has full confidence in him and has put the
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decisions at the f.b.i. in his hands he along peace talks between the government and the rebels in colombia have been called off after a series of bombings over the weekend president juan manuel santos has blamed marxist rebels for the attacks on police stations in three cities island's government has agreed to hold a referendum in may on liberalizing abortion laws it's currently banned in all cases except where there's a specific threat to the life of the mother due to pregnancy. volkswagen has come under fire for parts funding tests in which monkeys and humans were exposed to toxic fumes a report says the german car maker ordered the studies in twenty fourteen along with b.m.w. germany's government has called the tests on justifiable. and scares at an austrian resorts a trip to remember on the slopes thanks to a broken chair lift more than one hundred people spent several hours in the cold while mountain rescue teams with the help of helicopters worked to get them down
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i'll be back with news out a little over twenty five minutes on al-jazeera but now let's get you back to the struggle over the nile. khartoum capital of sudan. the meeting point of the white nile from the great lakes region and the blue not from the ethiopian highlands. hamdi is a resident of tutti island where the two niles converge. he explains
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to his son the difference in the color of the waters. the white nile on the left and the blue nile on the right and how they join here to form one river flowing northwards to egypt. again after you're married and meet the most beautiful thing distinguishing us from the rest of the world is the line of duty and love in your novel there is no other river like it. it's a great river heavenly and the life around it is unique really want. in this small truck each day having the delivers vegetables across the river to the market on the amount. of oil. and the. idea of the nile it take visible that girl here to the market how would i live otherwise and liberals way even with i will be buried by the life and.
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sudan's road to independence started in the middle of the twentieth century. and nine hundred fifty three britain and egypt joint rulers of a sedan for more than fifty years. signed an agreement giving the sudanese people the right to self-determination. two years later in one thousand nine hundred fifty five the sudanese parliament unanimously adopted a declaration of independence rather than unifying with egypt into a single country. on january the first nine hundred fifty six the sudanese flag was raised for the first time and khartoum. the largest country in africa was born a country flowing sixty percent of the entire nile basin area. sudan had enormous agricultural potential but there was
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a drawback. the one nine hundred twenty nine anglo egyptian agreement allotted only four billion cubic meters of nile waters to the sudanese territory. compared to egypt's forty eight billion cubic meters. the newly independent sudanese were not happy inheriting this colonial legacy. that this agreement reinforced gyptian dominance over the nile. and gives who done just a token amount of. what was that is the home of the chaff most sudanese believe that the knowledge agreements were unjustly set and that distribution of the water should have been based on the size of the country iceland . sedans share should have been much more than what was agreed upon because it's far larger than. the nine hundred twenty nine agreement
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had also given egypt the right to monitor the nile flow beyond the egyptian territory. under so that i remember when i was young in geneva i moved to them my roommate was an egyptian engineer this was and his sole job was to check the amount of work that he then took from the nine. and to ensure that so then didn't take water during the drought these were your ideas but in the end. keen to assert its newly won sovereignty the sudanese government declared it was no longer bound by the one nine hundred twenty nine agreement. by nine hundred fifty eight relations between sudan and egypt had deteriorated. so dan's foreign minister travelled to cairo for urgent meetings. the two
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peoples had often described themselves as brothers of the nile valley but now there was a growing rift. but dramatic events in khartoum brought a sudden end to tensions in november one thousand nine hundred fifty eight the sudanese army staged a coup d'etat overthrowing the government. general ibrahim abood took the reins of power. looking back on events some see the hand the venue gyptian president jamal abdul nasser behind the coup. general abdul nasser like a military coup and it. and lieutenant general abboud was closed to the egyptian regime. a year after the coup a sudanese delegation arrived in cairo to sign
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a new nile agreement. the one nine hundred fifty nine full utilization of nile waters agreement allocated a new share of the river ahead of the completion of the ass one high down in egypt . once constructed the dam was due to save over thirty billion cubic meters of floodwater and. egypt share of the nile increased by several billion cubic meters sudan's limited share more than quadruple. the one nine hundred fifty nine agreement between egypt and sudan consolidated a renewed the lion's. muscle issue that egypt and so then formed a joint committee wants a bill for monitoring that it in the two countries looked at that and increasing its water flow was the ad that is allowed. one way to
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increase the nile waters was to resurrect a plan dating back to british colonial times. over twenty billion cubic meters of the nile waters carried downstream from the great lakes region a last buyback aeration in the huge swamp area of southern sudan known as the sewage. the plan was to dig a canal diverting the nile to bypass this area reducing the water loss it was cooled the jungle a canal. there was one problem. sedan was far from stable. the nation had been born with a dangerous fault line between a predominantly arab and muslim north and a mainly christian and animist south. and
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. chief dam ian is a village leader on the outskirts of juba the capital of southern sudan. he remembers the mood of secession in the south during the early one nine hundred fifty s. . but wondered whether because we were all us by arabs as second men in the government we want to give it. get it but at. night i thought up what they did mentally i'm not going to i'm as good as i've got i. am going to get. in all this nine hundred fifty five the first sudanese civil war erupted between north and south. fighting raged for seventeen years. eventually a peace accord was signed in one thousand nine hundred seventy two in addis ababa.
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the end of fighting meant that plans for the jungle a canal in southern sudan could now be brought back off the shelf. egyptian president anwar sadat and his sudanese counterpart just mary did exactly this and in one nine hundred seventy eight work started on the three hundred sixty kilometer canal. but the southern sudanese viewed the project with suspicion. the main tribes of the region such as the new heir and dinka made a living by grazing their cattle across the suid. the jungle a canal threatened to dry up significant parts of this wetland. from the start it proved harmful for the tribes and their livestock. i know they do and they don't
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look and i would be open i would still a young man and we still stuck in the stock of cattle coming from the east going to deny to bring water and i guess when even they perished because of the bee bank and that was. he was a blues machine. a campaign against the jungle a canal project gained momentum reaching far and wide. would be. harmless i was the dumbly can and was met with a hostile campaign to give a go but you know yeah but i was minister of education and i received letters from japan from environmentalists asking me why we would want to drive the wetlands in southern sudan and create a desert with a felix hardly a letter from someone in japan who wasn't even living here and had no rights to this food i'm less sure what it was part of the campaign of negativity aimed at
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creating instability and i would area. others said well developed. by the early one nine hundred eighty s. the project almost two thirds complete had become the focus for suspicion and wild rumors. well there was politics and you know politicians can create. stories to frighten people one of them was that probably there were a lot of it just was coming to stop a lock on the canal. that was going through but of course in the absence of proper information anything could be fully. relations between the north and the south began to deteriorate once again. in one thousand nine hundred eighty three a group of southern sudanese soldiers mutiny refusing to obey orders from the
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northern commanders. an officer by the name of john garang joined the mutiny is. he led them into the bush to start a guerrilla movement which came to be known as the sudan people's liberation army or s.p. away. there's sudan's people liberation army was not against the john meccano perfect as such. turned out on the lead with billy i written his ph d. this is by the way on the donek now his program was not the person itself but his complaint was the sudden sit down also needs will too. and even not just been satisfied a little bit. the project
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provided one of the very first targets for the s.p.l. a at the beginning of sudan second civil war between the north and the south. and. the canals giant excavator lays in the spot where it dug its last home a rusting destroyed drink. eat eat eat eat the fighting lasted for twenty two years. two million people died and four million became refugees. get out well it was. just after a series of talks the peace agreement ending the civil war was signed in january two thousand and five in ny vashon kenya changed. the accord stipulated a referendum to be held throughout southern sudan on independence by january two
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thousand and eleven. the referendum resulted in southern secession. a new country was born. and a new question erodes. with a new country abide by previous water agreements allocating a share of the nile flood. even before the announcement of the referendum result the opinion from the south was clear. we must advise of those agreements. because saddam didn't become a different state then these must be device and those items wouldn't you not only look at him that are going to. a new nile basin country in africa rejecting that the liberty of old agreements. a new nation looking to secure its own share of the
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rivers waters something similar has happened before. in the one nine hundred sixty s. with european colonial powers declining a number of african nations gained their independence among them upstream states on the river nile. soon after they announced they would not abide by the one nine hundred twenty nine anglo egyptian nile agreement which had given egypt exclusive control of the river. at about fourteen deep of nine thousand internet argument he states very clearly that most states sell be able to utilize the nile river what us or that he was feeding their mates or the lakes wheat fields that he remained without the approval of the dance of they give him a government that alone gives veto to egypt i bet the party and states.
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the two agreements from the previous century from nine hundred twenty nine and one thousand nine hundred fifty nine lie at the heart of today's struggle over the nile . egypt and sudan on one side see the agreements as historical legacy is to be maintained. when i close some of the thought of so we must uphold agreements and treaties the holdup is that this is a logic that applies to national borders to me and hold all you can just change the borders of african countries because the demarcation had been rectified in pre-independence treaties their manner let you and so you can just demand new stipulations in the agreements especially since this is a crucial case reading to our livelihood then i want out of such a case egypt doesn't have any other water source problem i have yes. on the other side upstream countries see the past agreements as colonial relics and demand their own rights to
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a share of the nile waters. we are aware that the argument under use it over there made what. we're saying that we're back in the tank. and since then i notice things have happened and therefore there was a need to review the alchemy itself and how the countries. through which the nail grows can benefit the temple. in an effort to resolve the growing dispute in one nine hundred ninety nine the ministers of water resources from all the nile basin countries met here in dar es salaam tanzania. the so-called nile basin initiative was launched aimed at promoting joint projects and reaching a new agreement over the sharing of the nile. but the mood of camaraderie at the initial meetings soon changed and would then work in the kenneth. i'd like it to be
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known that the relationship between us and them wasn't that amicable that we said they believed we were taking all of the water and that they were getting nothing and number of her in the workplace and when we went for meetings in those countries they would say you are taking our water the whole of my of. because i don't want to say it was a hostile atmosphere but it certainly wasn't friendly for in. the upstream countries accused egypt of digging in its heels by refusing to consider relinquishing the agreements from the previous century. negotiations continued over ten years. attitudes hardened positions became ever more entrenched. the egyptians saw their share of the river flow as both negligible and non-negotiable. ignite it either near the amount of rainfall in the entire
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nile basin area is one point six trillion cubic meters of hadassah. but what arrives downstream is eighty four billion cubic meters only which means less than five percent is a fuck so where does the difference go it's wasted in evaporation and swamps in forests and it is not used in upstream countries. either therefore we should put aside the small quantity which is less than five percent leave it aside and focus on building joint projects between the nile basin countries this will save part of the lost water then we can divide it in a fair way between the ten basin countries. and i felt. the upstream countries rejected egyptian arguments. ethiopia was one of the countries which after years of being caught up in internal strife and tragedy was now pushing more forcefully for a greater share of the nile. well of all is
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a not to be here to be negotiated because this is. the nature and it is a given what are going in or that is not negotiated in any international argument and that's why it is a demanding the ny what are the when or whatever the reason it instead of telling is it is a matter of resources and enough not a lot of the sort of sense that. the resource of every. people. things reached a head in may two thousand and ten at a meeting in entebbe uganda when four upstream nations signed a new agreement nullifying older ones and setting out policies for a more equitable share of the nile. to this date six countries are signatories ethiopia uganda rwanda tanzania. having refused to even
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attend the meeting. there was a mood of celebration among those who signed the. so-called mild corporate or framework agreement and want to regulate ourselves. for having come back i know some of us there but why it's even more often said to make sure that all. the signatories believe egypt and sudan will have to come on board at some point and sign a new agreement all the time they walk out but they still come back because there is no in the souls that they can be able to use and what we have been telling them the only simple way is corporation with them at asians sure enough a few weeks later in june two thousand and ten the egyptians return to the negotiating table. it was a bitter pill for them to swallow. however they have yet to sign the entebbe
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agreement. for the egyptians at least for the time being facts on the ground are more important than the signing of any a cool must of. egypt and certain neutral parties believe that we don't need to sign any agreement at the present time had that there is no need for a framework agreement for the foreseeable future wouldn't we believe what is important is what is happening on the ground especially the fact that there are no big dam projects at the present time that may affect egyptian interest. but the status quo is unlikely to hold. african upstream nations are increasingly demanding a larger share of the nile waters. such demands are
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raising fears downstream. fears stoked up by a history of suspicion on. rivalry. fears about countries not only on the nile but even beyond the great river itself. the river nile is a vital source of sustenance to the countries and flows through this normal thing called on to claim. isn't good giving us a sense we found but with this comes
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a destabilizing rivalry the country's suspicious of each of us and tensions in the battle for control of the records transporting food and consultation was not often included counters to close on on long fields struggle over the nile a desire on al-jazeera. hello the heavy rain is continuing its journey across parts of north america shows that very clearly on the satellite picture is this area of cloud marching its way eastwards gradually clearing that eastern coast then just a little bit of residual cloud behind it there are in the day on choose day behind
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it it's brought up but it's a very cold to run so it's a maximum just minus six and then with the next weather system galloping its way east with the horns bringing an awful lot of heavy snow that works its way towards the great lakes region so for toronto expect that snow as we head through wednesday in that system still thinks all the way back towards the pacific coast and we're expecting yet will rain and snow around washington state now before the two of the south and we're also seeing the tail end of what's going on over north america across the central americas as well so you can see it here that is bringing us a fair amount of rain gradually is pushing its way southwards and it is feeling quite fresh behind it say for some of us there in the bahamas we're looking at a top temperature of around twenty four but with quite a keen on cool breeze towards the west and lots of showers here some of the heaviest around honduras but they do spread further south into panama further south still and the rains over the northern parts of argentina are really going to get going over the next few days wednesday is nothing particularly what.
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are in the green do so all the benefit of saddam people. so bad they seem to be important. witness documentaries not open your eyes. at this time on al-jazeera. we understand the differences and the similarities of cultures across the world. so no matter where you call home al-jazeera will bring in the news and current affairs that matter to you. al-jazeera the palestine national orchestra was first founded
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in the one nine hundred thirty s. but has had to be revived in twenty ten always very important thing in palestine now musicians from all over the world come together to perform in the occupied territories so good for nothing it's like every palestinian living in the aspirant felt it was the first time they performed using their identity al-jazeera world hears music as a force for unity the diaspora orchestra at this time. this is al-jazeera.

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